Protesters gather near the Eiffel Tower in Paris for the 2015 UN climate change conference. The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. The Agreement also encourages developing countries to voluntarily contribute to global efforts – or to continue to contribute. It is also important that adaptation financing and climate finance be directed to the most vulnerable countries, such as least developed countries and small island developing states, a group of low-lying coastal states that are struggling for development and are represented by the Alliance of Small Island States. The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. Article 28 of the agreement allows the parties to terminate the contract following a notification of an appeal to the custodian. This notification can only take place three years after the agreement for the country comes into force. The payment is made one year after the transfer.
Alternatively, the agreement provides that the withdrawal of the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, also withdraws the state from the Paris Agreement. The terms of the UNFCCC`s exit are the same as those of the Paris Agreement. There is no provision in the agreement for non-compliance. How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker  and the climate clock). There are also serious legal and constitutional issues. Foreign leaders in Europe, Asia and around the world should have no more to say about the U.S. economy than our own citizens and their elected representatives. That is why our withdrawal from the agreement is a reaffirmation of American sovereignty. (Applause) Our constitution is unique among all the nations of the world, and it is my supreme commitment and the greatest honor to protect them. And I will.
Several aspects of the Paris Agreement have made it an effective instrument to limit global pollution of greenhouse gases and improve resilience to the effects of climate change. These rules of transparency and accountability are similar to those set out in other international agreements.